lubricant is a substance interposed between two surfaces in
relative motion for the purpose of reducing the friction and wear between
them. Lubricant provides a protective film which allows for two touching
surfaces to be separated and "smoothed," thus lessening the friction between
them and correspondingly less heat generation in the machine, thereby keeping
the working temperature of machine parts within safe operating limits. Wear and
tear of parts is thus greatly reduced resulting in fewer breakdowns, greater
machine utility, lower maintenance cost and longer machine life.
The recorded use of lubricants dates back to almost to the
birth of civilization, with early historical developments being concerned with
the use of fats/oils of animal or vegetable origin in transportation or
machinery. Ancient inscriptions dating back to 1400 B.C. show early examples of
systematic lubrication with animal fats (tallow) being applied to reduce
friction on chariot wheel axels. From these very early roots, efforts to reduce
friction were dependent on relatively abundant animal and vegetable-based oils.
During the middle ages (AD 450- 1450) there was a steady
development in the use of lubricants, but it was not until AD 1600 - 1850
(particularly the industrial revolution in AD 1750 - 1850) that the value of
lubricants in decreasing friction and wear was recognized.
Colonel William Drake struck oil on
Aug.27,1859; marking the birth of the petroleum industry. He
drilled first oil well at Titusville, Pa in America in 1859 and his
well-publicized oil well created a new way to supply an arguably superior oil
product, which accelerated the move toward the use of mineral oil and hastened
the birth of the petroleum age. Petroleum-based oils were not widely accepted at
first because they did not perform as well as many of the animal-based products.
Raw crude did not make a good lubricant. But as the demand for automobiles grew,
so did the demand for better lubricants. Lubricant manufacturers soon learned
which crude made the best lubricants. In the 1920s, lubrication manufacturers
started processing their base oils to improve their performance. By 1923, the
Society of Automotive Engineers classified engine oils by viscosity: light,
medium and heavy. Engine oils contained no additives and had to be replaced
every 800 to 1,000 miles.
By approximately 1930, solvent processing emerged as a viable
technology for improving base oil performance using a fairly safe, recyclable
solvent. Additives began to be widely used in 1947 when the API began to
categorize engine oils by severity of service: regular, premium and heavy-duty.
Additives were used to extend the life only in premium and heavy-duty oils. In
1950, multigrade oils were first introduced which improved the hot and cold
performance of the oil. For several decades, the lubricants industry continued
to rely heavily on additive technology to improve the performance of finished
oils. Lubricant quality improved significantly only when the additive chemistry
Modern lubricants are formulated from a range of
premium base fluids and advanced additive chemistry. The base fluids has several
functions but primarily it is the lubricant providing a fluid layer separating
moving surfaces or removing heat and wear particles while keeping friction at
minimum. Many of the properties of the lubricant are enhanced or created by
addition of special chemical additives to base fluids.
Today lubricants play a very vital role in the
smooth & trouble free operation of any automobile or industrial
equipment.bbbbbb nhhnn surendrqa
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